Causes and consequences of baseline cerebral blood flow reductions in Alzheimer's disease

Oliver Bracko , Jean C Cruz Hernandez, Laibaik Park, Nozomi Nishimura and Chris B Schaffer

Journal of Cerebral Blood flow and Metabolism (2021)

 View Abstract

Reductions of baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) of ∼10–20% are a common symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that appear early in disease progression and correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. These CBF deficits are replicated in mouse models of AD and recent work shows that increasing baseline CBF can rapidly improve the performance of AD mice on short term memory tasks. Despite the potential role these data suggest for CBF reductions in causing cognitive symptoms and contributing to brain pathology in AD, there remains a poor understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms causing them. This review compiles data on CBF reductions and on the correlation of AD-related CBF deficits with disease comorbidities (e.g. cardiovascular and genetic risk factors) and outcomes (e.g. cognitive performance and brain pathology) from studies in both patients and mouse models, and discusses several potential mechanisms proposed to contribute to CBF reductions, based primarily on work in AD mouse models. Future research aimed at improving our understanding of the importance of and interplay between different mechanisms for CBF reduction, as well as at determining the role these mechanisms play in AD patients could guide the development of future therapies that target CBF reductions in AD.

 Full Access

Genetically engineered mice for combinatorial cardiovascular optobiology

Frank K Lee, Jane C Lee, Bo Shui, Shaun Reining, Megan Jibilian, David M Small, Jason S Jones, Nathaniel H Allan-Rahill, Michael RE Lamont, Megan A Rizzo, Sendoa Tajada, Manuel F Navedo, Luis Fernando Santana, Nozomi Nishimura, Michael I Kotlikoff

eLife (2021)

 View Abstract

Optogenetic effectors and sensors provide a novel real-time window into complex physiological processes, enabling determination of molecular signaling processes within functioning cellular networks. However, the combination of these optical tools in mice is made practical by construction of genetic lines that are optically compatible and genetically tractable. We present a new toolbox of 21 mouse lines with lineage-specific expression of optogenetic effectors and sensors for direct biallelic combination, avoiding the multiallelic requirement of Cre recombinase-mediated DNA recombination, focusing on models relevant for cardiovascular biology. Optogenetic effectors (11 lines) or Ca2+ sensors (10 lines) were selectively expressed in cardiac pacemaker cells, cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphocytes, glia, and other cell types. Optogenetic effector and sensor function was demonstrated in numerous tissues. Arterial/arteriolar tone was modulated by optical activation of the second messengers InsP3 (optoa1AR) and cAMP (optoB2AR), or Ca2+-permeant membrane channels (CatCh2) in smooth muscle (Acta2) and endothelium (Cdh5). Cardiac activation was separately controlled through activation of nodal/conducting cells or cardiac myocytes. We demonstrate combined effector and sensor function in biallelic mouse crosses: optical cardiac pacing and simultaneous cardiomyocyte Ca2+ imaging in Hcn4BAC-CatCh2/Myh6-GCaMP8 crosses. These experiments highlight the potential of these mice to explore cellular signaling in vivo, in complex tissue networks.

 Full Access

Synchronously pumped Raman laser for simultaneous degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon microscopy

Michael L. Buttolph, Menansili A. Mejooli, Pavel Sidorenko, Chi-Yong Eom, Chris B. Schaffer, Frank Wise

Biomedical Optics Express (2021)

 View Abstract

Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is a nonlinear imaging modality frequently used in deep-tissue imaging applications. A tunable-wavelength multicolor short-pulse source is usually required to excite fluorophores with a wide range of excitation wavelengths. This need is most typically met by solid-state lasers, which are bulky, expensive, and complicated systems. Here, we demonstrate a compact, robust fiber system that generates naturally synchronized femtosecond pulses at 1050 nm and 1200 nm by using a combination of gain-managed and Raman amplification. We image the brain of a mouse and view the blood vessels, neurons, and other cell-like structures using simultaneous degenerate and nondegenerate excitation.

 Full Access

Sort by Archive Year

Sort by Principal Investigators